Fuel planning is about the calculation of the required amount of fuel to safely reach the destination or an alternate aerodrome.
This calculation requires the knowledge of the average fuel flow (FF), of the distances to the destination and to the alternate(s) aerodrome(s) and also of the aircraft ground speed.
The average fuel flow accounts for the FF during the climb, the cruise and the descent phases.
The average ground speed accounts for the average wind component (AWC) along the route profile which, in turn, might be a head or a tailwind (see the Wind triangle page).
The time taken to cover the distance is obtained by dividing this distance by the average ground speed. So, the multiplication of this elapsed time by the fuel flow gives the fuel required to cover such a distance.
Besides the maths, the planning must comply with the current regulations established by the National Aviation Authorities. The basis for such regulations can be found in the ICAO document Annex 6 (Operation of aircraft).
In general, the planning includes the fuel required to reach the destination and alternates, the contingency fuel, the holding fuel, the final reserves (acording to the flight rules) and the extra fuel.
The mobile application allows you to practice fuel planning. Have fun!